This striking study of the meaning and use of the major spatial prepositions in French provides valuable insight into how the human mind organizes spatial relationships.
Most previous analyses of spatial prepositions have assumed that their semantic properties can be adequately explained by familiar logical and geometrical concepts. Thus, the standard view of the preposition in as it appears in the sentence the ball is in the bag postulates that it refers to the geometrical relation of inclusion. This paradigm, however, falters when faced with the contrast in acceptability between sentences such as the bulb is in the socket and the bottle is in the cap. The force exerted by the landmark (a conceptually fixed object) on the target (a moveable object) is crucial in this difference: the functional notion of containment seems more operational in the use of the preposition in than inclusion. That is, what are taken to be the landmark and the target depend greatly on the functions
these objects serve in the human scheme. This offers important clues to otherwise problematic linguistic quirks, such as why one sleeps in
one's bed, while one is said to lie on
While many of the examples apply in English as well as French, there are some noteworthy differences--in French one sits on
a chair, but in
a couch. Vandeloise convincingly argues that it is precisely this subjective element which makes a standard geometrical account unfeasible.